Renewable Distributed Generation Models in Three-Phase Load Flow Analysis for Smart Grid

Syafii Syafii, K. M. Nor K. M. Nor


The paper presents renewable distributed generation (RDG) models as three-phase resource in load flow computation and analyzes their effect when they are connected in composite networks. The RDG models that have been considered comprise of photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine generation (WTG). The voltage-controlled node and complex power injection node are used in the models. These improvement models are suitable for smart grid power system analysis. The combination of IEEE transmission and distribution data used to test and analyze the algorithm in solving balanced/unbalanced active systems. The combination of IEEE transmission data and IEEE test feeder are used to test the the algorithm for balanced and unbalanced multi-phase distribution system problem. The simulation results show that by increased number and size of RDG units have improved voltage profile and reduced system losses. 

Full Text:



Herbert GMJ, Inayan S, Sreevalsan E, Rajapandian S. A Review of Wind Energy Technologie Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2007; 11(6): 1117-1145.

[Daut I, Irwanto M, Suwarno, Irwan YM, Gomesh N, Ahmad NS, Potential of Wind Speed for Wind Power Generation In Perlis, Northern Malaysia. TELKOMNIKA International Journal, 2011; 9(3): 575-582.

REN21. Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century. Renewables Global Status Report 2009.

[Dugan RC, Arritt RF, Mc Dermott TE, Brahma SM, Schneider K. Distribution System Analysis to Support the Smart Grid. IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting. Minneapolis. 2010: 1-8.

Petinrin JO, Shaaban M. Overcoming Challenges of Renewable Energy on Future Smart Grid. TELKOMNIKA International Journal. 2012; 10(2): 229-234.

Kamh MZ, Iravani R. Unbalanced Model and Power-Flow Analysis of Microgrids and Active Distribution Systems. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. 2010; 25(4): 2851-2858.

Kroposki B, Lasseter R, Ise T, Morozumi S, Papathanassiou S, Hatziargyriou N. A look at microgrid technologies and testing projects from around the world. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine. 2008; 6(3): 40-53.

Eminoglu U. Modeling and application of wind turbine generating system (WTGS) to distribution systems. Renewable Energy. 2009, 34(11): 2474-2483.

Abdel-Akher M, Nor KM, Abdul-Rashid AH. Improved three-phase power-flow methods using sequence components. IEEE Transactions on power systems. 2005, 20(3): 1389-1397.

Nor KM, Mokhlis H, Gani TA. Reusability techniques in load-flow analysis computer program. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. 2004; 19(4): 1754–1762.

Villalva MG, Gazoli JR, Filho ER. Comprehensive Approach to Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Arrays. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronic. 2009; 24(5): 1198-1208.

Power Systems Test Case Archive. downloaded from:

Radial Distribution Analysis Program (RDAP), downloaded from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

TELKOMNIKA Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control
ISSN: 1693-6930, e-ISSN: 2302-9293
Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, 4th Campus
Jl. Ringroad Selatan, Kragilan, Tamanan, Banguntapan, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55191
Phone: +62 (274) 563515, 511830, 379418, 371120
Fax: +62 274 564604