Rohani Jahja Widodo


This paper presents development and applications of Control Systems (CS). Several characteristics of CS can be linked to human behavior. CS can "think" in the sense that they can replace to some extent, human operation. CS can distinguish between open-loop and closed-loop CS and it is a concept or principle that seems to fundamental in nature and not necessarily peculiar to engineering. In human social and political organizations, for example, a leader remains the leader only as long as she is successful in realizing the desires of the group. CS theory can be discussed from four viewpoints as: an intellectual discipline within science and the philosophy of science, a part of engineering, with industrial applications and Social Systems (SS) of the present and the future. In global communication, developed countries and developing countries should build several attractive and sound symbiosis bridges, to prevent loss of universe balances. CS applications have social impacts not only in developed countries but also in developing countries. A new work force strategy without denying the existing of CS is established by retooling the work forces, thus the challenges of social impacts could be answers wisely and would be bright opportunities to improve human standards of living.


CS, SS, social impacts, human standards of living.

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